Sudan is situated in Sub-Saharan Africa, covering an area of about 1.9 million km² and has a population of 43 million. It is regarded as one of the countries in the world where human development is least advanced with a poverty rate of about 46%. Sudan, like most countries in the Sahel region, faces multiple interlinked challenges, such as high poverty rates, poor access to services, a decline in agricultural productivity, significant environmental degradation, climate change and the incidence of extreme weather events, conflicts, and social unrest. This study presents an overview of the major environmental issues related to the energy situation, land degradation and agriculture, technological socioeconomic and policy actions for sustainable land management, climate change impacts and adaptation, evaluation of national policies and development and main lessons learned from recent investments. The study is based on an intensive review of relevant literature. The purpose of this study is to assist the planning and implementation of future projects related to the promotion of renewable energy, sustainable agricultural growth, land management and climate change adaptation and mitigation.